Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
Peterborough is a city on the Otonabee River in central Ontario, Canada, 125 kilometres (78 mi) northeast of Toronto. The population of the City of Peterborough was 78,698, while the census metropolitan area (CMA) has a population of 118,975 as of the 2011 census. It presently ranks as the 33rd largest CMA in Canada.
Peterborough’s nickname of “The Electric City” underscores the historical and present day importance of technology and manufacturing as an economic base of the city, which has operations from large multi-national companies such as Siemens, Rolls Royce, and General Electric, and more local technology businesses such as Fisher Gauge and Bryston.
Peterborough is known as the gateway to the Kawarthas, “cottage country”, a large recreational region of the province. It is named in honour of Peter Robinson, an early Canadian politician who oversaw the first major immigration to the area.
Peterborough is situated in South Eastern Ontario, on the northeastern edge of the Greater Golden Horseshoe and heart of the Kawartha Lakes region in Ontario. Peterborough lies in the St. Lawrence Lowlands ecoregion in Canada, just south of the Canadian Shield and about 35 kilometres north of Lake Ontario. The city is centred around a series of rapids in the Otonabee River, approximately halfway between where it begins at Katchewanooka Lake and where it empties into Rice Lake. The urban area of Peterborough completely surrounds the only lake on the Otonabee, Little Lake, and the Trent Canal runs along the eastern edge of the city, connecting Little Lake to a section of the Otonabee above the rapids.
Peterborough’s topography is largely defined by land formations created by receding glaciers 10,000-15,000 years ago. The South End and Downtown portions of the City sit on what was the bottom of the glacial Lake Peterborough – part of a glacial melt waterway connecting ancient Lake Algonquin (now Lake Huron) to ancient Lake Iroquois (now Lake Ontario). This area of relatively low and flat relief (approximately 191–200 m (625–645 ft.) above sea level) is prone to flooding, exemplified in the major flood that occurred on July 15, 2004. The ground elevation rises to the west, north, and east where a large upland area (the Peterborough Drumlin field) defines the landscape. Much of the land in the North and West Ends of the City rises to 230–274 metres (750–900 feet) above sea level, with Tower Hill, at 286 m (942 ft.) a.s.l., being the highest point in the City. Armour Hill, another prominent drumlin located in East City, forms the physical obstacle which the Trent-Severn Waterway ascends by way of the Peterborough Lift Lock. The Oak Ridges Moraine is located approximately 15 kilometres south of the city.
Peterborough and the Kawarthas offer a multitude of attractions and events for all demographics. Rich in heritage, the region is host to an array of museums, cultural exhibitions, indoor and outdoor galleries and theatres, Aboriginal heritage attractions and historical sites, as well as a vibrant arts community.
While many buildings in Peterborough that would have served as examples of the cities heritage and architectural style have been lost over the years due to renovations and modernizations, some examples such as the YMCA building do still stand today as designated architectural landmarks. 
Peterborough is home to Canada’s only authentic Venetian gondola service. Honeymoon Gondola offering romantic gondola rides to lovers in Little Lake at the Peterborough Marina
The Peterborough Museum & Archives is home to a diverse collection of artifacts. It was established in 1897 and moved to its present site on Armour Hill in 1967. The Archives collection includes items from Catharine Parr Traill, the original Peter Robinson papers, the Park Studio Fonds and the Balsillie collection of Roy Studio Images, over 300,000 film and glass plate negatives dating back to 1896.
No longer the dominant local industry, manufacturing is still one of the key sectors along with food processing, automotive supplies, electronics, aerospace and life sciences/biotechnology. General Electric and Quaker Oats maintain large operations in Peterborough, as well, the city is also a ‘bedroom’ community for workers commuting to Oshawa and East Toronto. The Peterborough Regional Health Centre is the largest employer, planning to hire 800 more over the next three years, adding to its current employment total of over 2,000 School boards, local government, Trent University and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources are other large employers.
Companies like General Electric have had a major impact on the growth of the city. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) of the early 1990s saw a major shift in trading patterns for many Canadian companies. Other innovations like just in time delivery and pressure to produce ever cheaper goods impacted some of the large multi-nationals in the 1970s and 1980s. GE operations in Peterborough consists of GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada, GE Hydro and World Air. Despite this, today GE, PepsiCo Quaker, Siemens and numerous smaller manufacturing companies are experiencing significant growth. Minute Maid (Coca-Cola) recently invested $CDN20 million in a new warehouse and product line while auto parts supplier Ventra has doubled in size. United Canadian Malt Ltd. is a manufacturer of a wide variety of extracts of malted barley, and other grains. Manufacturing job creation kept pace with the provincial average from 1991–2001. Lower costs, reliable labour and high quality post-secondary institutions are a competitive advantage for Peterborough. Peterborough was ranked number one location for business in Ontario by Canadian Business magazine in late 2004.
Sports and Recreation
Peterborough is well known for its junior level hockey team, the Peterborough Petes of the Ontario Hockey League. The ‘Petes’ were established in 1956 and have become the longest continuously operating team in the league. They have participated in the Memorial Cup tournament nine times in their history and won it once. The Petes have produced a record number of National Hockey League (NHL) players such as Eric Staal, Jordan Staal, Mike Fisher, Cory Stillman, Chris Pronger, Steve Yzerman, Bob Gainey, Mike Ricci, Larry Murphy, Tie Domi, Mickey Redmond, and coaches such as Scotty Bowman, Roger Neilson, Mike Keenan, Gary Green and Dick Todd. They have also graduated 96 players who have played 100 or more games in the NHL.
As of the Canada 2011 Census, there were 78,698 people and 35,698 dwellings in the city. This is an increase from 74,898 residents as at the Canada 2006 Census, a growth rate of 4.4%. This is less than both Ontario’s overall growth rate (5.7%) and Canada’s growth rate (5.9%). The population density of the city is 1,233.6 people per square kilometre.
The population of Peterborough’s CMA, which consists of the city of Peterborough as well as the surrounding townships of Smith-Ennismore-Lakefield, Douro-Dummer, Otonabee-South Monaghan and Cavan-Monaghan; stood at 118,975 in 2011. This makes it the 33rd largest metropolitan area in Canada (14th in Ontario). The population increased from 116,570 in 2006 for a growth rate of 2.1%. Communities within Peterborough’s CMA include Millbrook, Bridgenorth and Lakefield. The population density of Peterborough (CMA) averaged 85.4 people per square kilometre, compared with an average of 12.6 people per square kilometre (32.6/sq mi) for the province.